a visual check of the state of the inside of the hive. A routine inspection would include checking if the colony is queen right, has eggs, sealed brood and stores of honey and pollen as well as checking for pests and dieases.
a combination of different approaches to dealing with a variety of pests to protect the health of a hive of bees. Methods include, chemical (organic acids, medications etc.), mechanical (open mesh floors etc.) and general common sense practices regarding cleanliness and tidiness e.g. not leaving old wax or frames around the apiary, regular rotation of frames to remove old wax, using a soda wash for tools, keeping equipment clean, fumigating or scorching wooden boxes before using on another colony.
see Integraged Pest Management
in 1906 a previously unseen disease decimated the bee population on the Isle of Wight. In 1912 it was suggested that the losses had been due to nosema but this was disproved. In 1919 acarine was suggested to be the cause. More recent research has concluded that a combination of factors including chronic paralysis virus (unknown at the time), poor weather limiting foraging and overstocking (keeping too many bees for the amount of forage available) was more likely.