a manley frame is distinguished by its 40mm wide side bars and 27mm wide top bar. They act in the same way as hoffman side bars to automatically space the frames. Manley frames should not rock about or slide and squash bees in transit. They are considered to aid in uncapping during honey harvest as the uncapping knife is guided by the wood. They have been described as giving a 'double walled' effect in the supers as there is no bee space between the ends of the frames. However, as the side bars are in contact all down their length, they do tend to be glued together with propolis.
a commercially produced formic acid treatment used to combat varroa. See Formic Acid.
a metal or wooden block placed to obstruct the entrance to the hive to prevent mice gaining entry. The entrance to the hive is restricted to one or two bee spaces making the colony easy to protect by the bees on the inside. Usually put on in the autumn and rmoved in the spring. Some of the metal versions with round holes are said to strip pollen from the bees' legs which could be detrimental to colony build up in the spring.